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06 | 12 | 2022
10.14489/vkit.2022.11.pp.037-044

DOI: 10.14489/vkit.2022.11.pp.037-044

Белим С. В., Мунько С. Н.
СТЕГАНОГРАФИЧЕСКОЕ ВСТРАИВАНИЕ ДАННЫХ В КОД HTML-ДОКУМЕНТА
(с. 37-44)

Аннотация. Предложена двухключевая схема скрытого встраивания данных в открытый код HTML-страницы. Первый ключ используется для шифрования встраиваемого сообщения. Второй ключ необходим для кодирования скрытого сообщения. Встраивание скрытых данных проводится с помощью добавления в дерево тегов новых вершин. Новые вершины добавляются к листовым вершинам страницы, служащей контейнером. Каждый новый тег кодирует четыре бита скрываемой информации. Ключ встраивания используется для формирования имен классов, включающих новые теги. Имена классов маскируются под фреймворк, используемый на веб-странице. Имена вырабатываются с помощью хэш-функции и ключа встраивания. Алгоритм извлечения сообщения основан на знании ключей встраивания и шифрования принимающей стороной и сводится к поиску тегов по их именам с последующим декодированием и расшифрованием. Разработанный алгоритм может быть использован для передачи скрытых сообщений в сети Интернет и встраивания цифровых водяных знаков.

Ключевые слова:  стеганография; код HTML-страницы; скрытая передача данных; цифровые водяные знаки.

 

Belim S. V., Munko S. N.
STEGANOGRAPHIC EMBEDDING OF DATA IN HTML DOCUMENT CODE
(pp. 37-44)

Abstract. A two-key scheme for concealed embedding of data in open source HTML pages is proposed. The first key is used to encrypt the embedded message. The second key is required to encode the hidden message. The body structure of a web page is a tag tree. The embedding algorithm uses class tags. Empty classes do not affect the display of a web page in a browser. Hidden data is encoded by adding new vertices to the tag tree. New vertices are added to the leaf vertices of the page that serves as the container. There are leaf vertices that exclude the addition of empty classes to them. Each tag encodes eight bits of hidden information. The embed key is used to form class names that include new tags. Class names are disguised as the framework used on the web page. Names are generated using a hash function and an embedding key. The message extraction algorithm is based on knowledge of embedding and encryption keys by the receiving subscriber. The algorithm for extracting data boils down to searching for tags by their names and then decoding them. The developed algorithm can be used for transmitting hidden messages on the Internet. The proposed algorithm is open. Resistance is ensured by the secrecy of encryption and embedding keys. Direct enumeration is necessary to hack the system if the tag embedding key is unknown. The algorithm for forming class names does not violate the statistical patterns of the legal class names set. Resistance is provided by the key retention policy. The average throughput of the algorithm is 0,003 bits per byte.

Keywords: Steganography; HTML page code; Hidden data transfer; Digital watermarks.

Рус

С. В. Белим, С. Н. Мунько (Омский государственный технический университет, Омск, Россия) E-mail: Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript  

Eng

S. V. Belim, S. N. Munko (Omsk State Technical University, Omsk, Russia) E-mail: Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript  

Рус

1. Margarov G. Data Hiding on the Internet: Steganalysis Against Steganography // NATO Science for Peace and Security Series – E: Human and Societal Dynamics. 2010. V. 67. P. 167 – 182. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-537-2-167
2. Liu J., Zhang Y. A Dynamic Steganography Method for Web Images with Average Runlength-Coding // Journal of Computer Science Research. 2021. V. 3, No. 1. P. 28 – 32. DOI: 10.30564/jcsr.v3i1.2735
3. A New Payload Partition Strategy in Color Image Steganography / X. Liao, Y. Yu, B. Li et al. // IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. 2019. V. 30, No. 3. P. 685 – 696. DOI: 10.1109/TCSVT.2019.2896270
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5. Belim S. V., Cherepanov P. G. Digital Video Watermarking Algorithm Robust Against Video Container Format Changes // Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2019. V. 1260. P. 022001(9). DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1260/2/022001
6. Odeh A., Elleithy K., Faezipour M., Abdel-fattah E. Novel Steganography over HTML // Innovations and Advances in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, Networking and Engineering. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. 2015. V. 313. P. 607 – 611. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-06773-5_81
7. Saini S. A Survey on Watermarking Web Contents for Protecting Copyright // 2015 International Conference on Innovation in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS). 2015. P. 1 – 4. DOI: 10.1109/ICIIECS.2015.7193239
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9. Mira N., Hussain S. A. Secure Web-Based Communication // Procedia Computer Science. 2011. V. 3. P. 556 – 562. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.092
10. Shirali-Shahreza M. Java Applets Copy Protection by Steganography // 2006 International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing Proceedings. 2006. P. 388 – 391. DOI: 10.1109/IIH-MSP.2006.265024
11. Ahvanooey M. T., Li Q., Shim H. J., Huang Y. A Comparative Analysis of Information Hiding Techniques for Copyright Protection of Text Documents // Security and Communication Networks. 2018. V. 2018. P. 5325040(1) – 5325040(22). DOI: 10.1155/2018/5325040
12. Imran S., Khan A., Ahmad B. Text Steganography Utilizing XML, HTML and XHTML Markup Languages // International Journal on Information Technology and Security. 2017. V. 9, No. 3. P. 99 – 116.
13. Yuk S., Cho Y. A Time-Based Dynamic Operation Model for Webpage Steganography Methods // Electronics. 2020. V. 9. P. 2113(1) – 2113(22). DOI: 10.3390/electronics9122113
14. Tariq M. A., Abbasi A. T., Khan A., Ahmad B. Boosting the Capacity of Web Based Steganography by Utilizing HTML Space Codes: A Blind Steganography Approach // Information technology in industry. 2017. V. 5. P. 29 – 36.
15. Mahato S., Yadav D. K., Khan D. A. A Modified Approach to Text Steganography Using Hypertext Markup Language // 2013 Third International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Technologies (ACCT). 2013. P. 40 – 44. DOI: 10.1109/ACCT.2013.19
16. Sedeeq I., Coenen F., Lisitsa A. Attribute Permutation Steganography Detection Using Attribute Position Changes Count // Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy – ICISSP. 2017. P. 95 – 100. DOI: 10.5220/0006166400950100
17. Reddy B. S., Kuppusamy K. S., Sivakumar T. Towards Web Page Steganography with Attribute Truth Table // IEEE 2016 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). 2016. P. 1 – 5. DOI: 10.1109/ICACCS.2016.7586359
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19. Bajaj I., Aggarwal R. K. RSA Secured Web Based Steganography Employing HTML Space Codes and Compression Technique // 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). 2019. P. 865 – 868. DOI: 10.1109/ICCS45141.2019.9065640.
20. Lawnik M., Pełka A., Kapczyński A. A New Way to Store Simple Text Files // Algorithms. 2020. V. 13. P. 101(1) – 101(12). DOI: 10.3390/a13040101

Eng

1. Margarov G. (2010). Data Hiding on the Internet: Steganalysis Against Steganography. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series – E: Human and Societal Dynamics, Vol. 67, pp. 167 – 182. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-537-2-167
2. Liu J., Zhang Y. (2021). A Dynamic Steganography Method for Web Images with Average Runlength-Coding. Journal of Computer Science Research, Vol. 3, (1), pp. 28 – 32. DOI: 10.30564/jcsr.v3i1.2735
3. Liao X., Yu Y., Li B. et al. (2019). A New Payload Partition Strategy in Color Image Steganography. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 30, (3), pp. 685 – 696. DOI: 10.1109/TCSVT.2019.2896270
4. Duan X., Guo D., Liu N., Li B. et al. (2020). A New High Capacity Image Steganography Method Combined with Image Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Deep Neural Network. IEEE Access, Vol. 8, pp. 25777 – 25788. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2971528
5. Belim S. V., Cherepanov P. G. (2019). Digital Video Watermarking Algorithm Robust Against Video Container Format Changes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1260. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1260/2/022001
6. Odeh A., Elleithy K., Faezipour M., Abdel-fattah E. (2015). Novel Steganography over HTML. Innovations and Advances in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, Networking and Engineering. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 313, pp. 607 – 611. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-06773-5_81
7. Saini S. (2015). A Survey on Watermarking Web Contents for Protecting Copyright. 2015 International Conference on Innovation in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), pp. 1 – 4. DOI: 10.1109/ICIIECS.2015.7193239
8. Shahreza M. S. (2007). A New Method for Steganography in HTML Files. Advances in Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering, pp. 247 – 252. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-5261-8_39
9. Mira N., Hussain S. A. (2011). Secure Web-Based Communication. Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 3, pp. 556 – 562. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.092
10. Shirali-Shahreza M. (2006). Java Applets Copy Protection by Steganography. 2006 International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing Proceedings, pp. 388 – 391. DOI: 10.1109/IIH-MSP.2006.265024
11. Ahvanooey M. T., Li Q., Shim H. J., Huang Y. (2018). A Comparative Analysis of Information Hiding Techniques for Copyright Protection of Text Documents. Security and Communication Networks, Vol. 2018, pp. 5325040(1) – 5325040(22). DOI: 10.1155/2018/5325040
12. Imran S., Khan A., Ahmad B. (2017). Text Steganography Utilizing XML, HTML and XHTML Markup Languages. International Journal on Information Technology and Security, Vol. 9, (3), pp. 99 – 116.
13. Yuk S., Cho Y. (2020). A Time-Based Dynamic Operation Model for Webpage Steganography Methods. Electronics, Vol. 9, pp. 2113(1) – 2113(22). DOI: 10.3390/electronics9122113
14. Tariq M. A., Abbasi A. T., Khan A., Ahmad B. (2017). Boosting the Capacity of Web Based Steganography by Utilizing HTML Space Codes: A Blind Steganography Approach. Information technology in industry, Vol. 5, pp. 29 – 36.
15. Mahato S., Yadav D. K., Khan D. A. (2013). A Modified Approach to Text Steganography Using Hypertext Markup Language. 2013 Third International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Technologies (ACCT), pp. 40 – 44. DOI: 10.1109/ACCT.2013.19
16. Sedeeq I., Coenen F., Lisitsa A. (2017). Attribute Permutation Steganography Detection Using Attribute Position Changes Count. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy – ICISSP, pp. 95 – 100. DOI: 10.5220/0006166400950100
17. Reddy B. S., Kuppusamy K. S., Sivakumar T. (2016). Towards Web Page Steganography with Attribute Truth Table. IEEE 2016 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), pp. 1 – 5. DOI: 10.1109/ICACCS.2016.7586359
18. Guo X., Cheng G., Zhu C., Zhou A. et al. (2013). Make Your Webpage Carry Abundant Secret Information Unawarely. 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications & 2013 IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 541 – 548. DOI: 10.1109/HPCC.and.EUC.2013.83
19. Bajaj I., Aggarwal R. K. (2019). RSA Secured Web Based Steganography Employing HTML Space Codes and Compression Technique. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS), pp. 865 – 868. DOI: 10.1109/ICCS45141.2019.9065640.
20. Lawnik M., Pełka A., Kapczyński A. (2020). A New Way to Store Simple Text Files. Algorithms, Vol. 13, pp. 101(1) – 101(12). DOI: 10.3390/a13040101

Рус

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